Birababaje : Menya vyinshi utaruzi bijanye n’incamake y’ubuzima bwa Nelson Mandela

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Rolihlahla Mandela yavutse kw’igenekerezo rya 18 Mukakaro umwaka w’i 1918 ku gutumba ka Mvezo, hafi y’uruzi Mbashe hafi y’igisagara ca Mthatha, igisagara gikuru c’i Transkei, intara y’ubu ya Cap yo mu Buseruko bw’Afrika y’Epfo. Izina Rolihlahla, rigasigura « Gukura kw’ishami ry’igiti »

Mandela yava m’umuryango w’abami b’aba Thembu bo mu bwoko bw’aba Xhosa buganza agace kamwe k’igisagara c’i Transkei. Sekuruza wiwe avyara se, yari Inkosi Enkhulu, ni ukuvuga umwami w’aba Thembu. Se kuru wa Rolihlahla akaba ariwe yari umuhungu w’uwo mwami. Yagiye kU butegetsi atamatora ahabaye kw’izina rya Mandela, ari naryo ryaciye riba izina ry’umuryango.

Se wa Rolihlahla azwi ubu kw’izina rya Nelson Mandela, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa niwe yari umukuru w’agatumba ka Mvezo. Uwo se wa Mandela yagize abagore bane, abavyarako abana umunani, Rolihlahla Mandela akaba yari uwo ku mugore wa gatatu, Nosekeni Fanny. Uwo mugore wa gatatu yava wo mu muryango w’aba Mpemvu Xhosa ari naho Mandela yamariye igihe kirekire mu buto bwiwe.

Rolihlahla Mandela yabaye umuntu wa mbere mu muryango iwe yatanguye kuja mw’ishure. Ari naho yaciye ahakurira izina rya Nelson, iryo naryo akaba yarihawe n’umwigisha yitwa Miss Mdingane yamwigisha ico gihe. Mandela ati : « Umunsi wa mbere ngishika mw’ishure, umwigisha yaciye aduhe twese izina ry’icongereza. Wari umugenzo w’abanyafrika ico gihe kuko twigishwa ahanini n’abongereza ».

Se yapfuye yishwe n’igituntu igihe Nelson Mandela yaragifise imyaka icenda gusa, Jongintaba akaba ariwe yaciye amubera se mugishingo ca se amuvyara. Ku myaka 16 y’amavuka, yaciye akurikirana ivy’imigenzo y’abo y’aba Thembu, aca aja kwiyandikisha kw’ishure ryitiriwe Clarkebury Boarding ari naho yaronkeye urupapuro rwa mbere rw’umutsindo yigize mu myaka ibiri, hakugira imyaka itatu bivuye ku bukerebutsi bwiwe. Ageze ku myaka 19, yaciye atorwa kuba umuhanuzi nk’uko se yari, aca abandanya amashuri kw’ishuri ry’aba methoditse ry’i Healdtown, ishure ryigako ahanini abana bava mu miryango y’abami.

Igihe aronkeye agapapuro k’umutsindo k’amashure yisumbuye, Nelson Mandela yaciye aja kwiyandikisha muri kaminuza ya Fort hare, kaminuza yo nyene yakira abana b’abirabure kugira bage mu gisata kiraba ivy’amategeko. Akiri kuri iyo kaminuza nyene, yashimye gukurikirana ibiganiro bijanye na politike na cane cane yumva yoshigikira igihugu ca Afrika y’Epfo mu bijanye n’amatati yari hagati y’igihugu c’Ubwongereza n’Ubudagi, we akaba yari ku ruhande rw’Ubwongereza.

Inyuma y’amashure yiwe ya kaminuza, yarakoze mu gisata c’ugucukura ubutare mu gisagara c’i Transeversal aho yari umucengerezi, mu nyuma arahava bivuye ku kutumvikana n’umukoresha wiwe. Yaciye aja gukora mu biro nk’umushingwamanza bivuye ku bugenzi bari bafitaniye n’uwitwa Walter Sisulu.

Mu mwaka w’ 1944 Mandela yaciye yinjira muri ANC (Conges National Africain) kugira barwanye intwaro y’akaryanishamiryango yakorwa n’abazungu. Aho abereye umucamanza yaciye atangura umugambwe mu mwaka w’ 1948, umugambwe waje kwiyamiriza amategeko yakorwa n’umugambwe uri k’ubutegetsi bw’ico gihe.

Igenekerezo rya 12 Mukakaro 1963 yaciye afatwa n’igipolisi ca Afrika y’Epfo kibifashijwemwo na CIA, aca ajanwa mw’ibohero azize ivyiyumviro vyo kurwanya intwaro y’akaryanishamiryango. Aho akaba ariho yaciye abera ikimenyetso c’ugushigikira ubumwe n’amahoro, aca atangura gushigikirwa n’amakungu.

Inyuma y’imyaka 27 apfungiwe mu buzima bubi, Mandela yarekuwe kw’igenekerezo rya 11 Ruhuhuma 1990. Mu mwaka w’i 1993 aca aronka umudari w’itiriwe « Prix Nobel de la Paix » ku butwari bwiwe bwo gushigikira amahoro n’umwumvikano.

Yaciye aba umukuru w’igihugu c’Afrika y’Epfo mu mwaka w’i 1994, aho yabandanije ivyiyumviro vyo gushigikira amahoro no kwumvikanisha abirabure n’abazungu. Yaranarwanije no kutangana mu utunzi hagati yabo, ariko ikibazo ca SIDA muri Afrika y’Epfo kimubera ifuro ry’igiti. Nelson Mandela Apfuye ageze ku myaka 95, agifise kandi umutima wo guhuza abacanyemwo. Imana imwakire Mu Bwami bwayo bwo Mwijuru.